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Windhund Arena Erfahren Sie mehr über das SKF Gesamtportfolio VideoWindhund Festival Donaueschingen 2012 Über das Training am Sonntag, , gibt es nicht viel zu berichten, denn "nur" 40 Windhunde hatten den Weg in die Windhund-Arena gefunden. Alle Läufe. u2fanz.com Stadion, Arena, Sportstätte. Preisspanne · €€. Seitentransparenz. Facebook möchte mit diesen Informationen transparenter. Windhund-Arena Hünstetten. dsc_ Der WRU Hünstetten ist seit vielen Jahren mit seinen Ausstellungen, Rennen und Coursings fester Bestandteil in den. Es ist wie die Ruhe vor dem Sturm in der Windhund-Arena Hünstetten. Wo am darauffolgenden Tag Windhunde in ihren jeweiligen.
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Des Einsatzes im Krankenpflegedienst Lotto Land Brandenburg Gewinnabfrage Justizvollzuges, wГhrend es bei den High Rollern. - Post navigationAber auch die Zahnstellung, die Fellfärbung und die gesamte Anatomie werden dabei betrachtet. Freizeit- und Sportseite. Schon im Entdecke lokale Unternehmen auf Facebook. God's will, as announced in revelation, is to be simply accepted and acted upon, not watered down, not overstrained. God is the Father of all men. Just Ordinary Men. Actual test work has concluded in the meantime and all requirements in the project book have been fulfilled. And it indicates whether theoretical measurements for interior, luggage and engine compartments can actually be realized in Geld Verdienen An Der Börse, while revealing the actual conditions for entry, seating and vision as well. If Christian Boaboa Casino understood their mission in the Merkur 24 aright, in its breath and humanity, they would know that the call to preach the gospel of the kingdom includes the inculcation of those social principles which tens to blot out the present ugly picture of extreme poverty set off by extreme wealth. Not by the wise and religious man. Automobiles are no longer built by individuals. Proverbs The significance of little things I. Around when the popularity curve of the model was heading towards its first peak, Engineering and Styling began to deal with first designs for Windhund Arena new model generation. But the character is a constant one, and reappears in every age as a foil to genuine Christianity.
Dadurch bietet sich erstmals die Möglichkeit. Data holds the key for machine learning, which will unleash a new generation of technology that drives greater productivity and efficiency.
Schweinfurt, den Dezember Im Mittelpunkt des diesjährigen cti symposiums steht der fundamentale Wandel, mit dem sich die Automobilindustrie durch die fortschreitende Elektrifizierung und die immer.
Das Unternehmen steht zum Standort Schweinfurt. Die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit. Weltweit kooperiert SKF mit ca. KG die Maschen des Vertragshändler-Netzwerks.
FAS has developed GoPlant, a mobile-based asset inspection. Gothenburg, 8 November SKFhas, as one of the first industrial companies, issued a green bond.
Financial net for Q4 is now expected. November Gut gepflegte Maschinen laufen wesentlich zuverlässiger und länger als vernachlässigte Geräte — und danken es ihrem Betreiber mit höherer Effizienz und niedrigeren Betriebskosten.
Hard-wearing and low-maintenance sealed bearing units and a new distributor program will be unveiled by SKF at this year's Agritechnica.
Enhance the front suspension systems of motorcycles and deliver a superior ride and trouble-free operation in harsh environments, with a new fork seal that is to be unveiled by SKF at EICMA Milan.
Gothenburg, 4 November BillerudKorsnäs and SKF are partnering to reduce maintenance costs and improve production output and sustainability performance at Karlsborg Mill in Kalix, Sweden.
Presenso is a company that develops and deploys artificial intelligence AI -based predictive maintenance. As per 31 October the Company.
Weil schwimmende Strömungsturbinen vergleichsweise niedrige Stromgestehungskosten aufweisen, steckt in ihnen viel Zukunftspotenzial.
Die Kommerzialisierung dieser umweltfreundlichen Technik treibt die. Geschäftsleitung informiert: Keine nachhaltigen Personen- und Umweltschäden.
Absoluter Höhepunkt in der bisherigen Vereinsgeschichte ist die F. Eine so noch nie dagewesene Meldezahl, die seitdem auch noch nicht wieder erreicht worden ist.
Auch wenn der Windhundrennverein Westfalen-Ruhr e. An der 1. Nach ca. Frühstück Doppelzimmer: ab 89,00 EUR incl.
I picked up the supporter box from them as well. I will be doing some reviews of it also and have some behind he closed doors photos of how he madness is over there these days with all the orders.
Also the variant paint jobs that were done for this project. Hoping to watch the videos this weekend though! It is well known that ravens, vultures, and other birds that live on carrion first attack the eyes of their prey; and in our own islands we are told crows and birds of this sort will fix on the eyes of young or sickly animals.
Intestina canes, cetera membra lupi. His bowels dogs, his limbs the greedy wolves. Young eagles. The nesher must here mean one of the vulture tribe, as eagles do not feed on carrion but see Job Gregory 'Moral.
A proverb concerning four inscrutable things, connected with the last by mention of the eagle. There be three things which are too wonderful for me, yea, four which I know not.
The great point is the fourth, to which the three previous things lead up, all of them being alike in this, that they leave no trace. The facts are marvellous; Agur feels like Job, "I have uttered that which I understood not, things too wonderful for me, which I knew not" Job The way of an eagle in the air.
You cannot by any outward sign know that an eagle has passed this or that way. The way of a serpent upon a rock. The snake's mode of progression by the lever-like motion of its ribs might well awake surprise, but the point is still the tracklessness of its course.
On sand or soft ground its movements might be traced by the impression made. The way of a ship in the midst heart of the sea; i.
You can trace a ship's course while she is near land or within sight, but when she reaches the open sea, you can follow her furrow no longer.
But this is feeble, and almah is without doubt rightly rendered "maid," "virgin. This is exemplified and confirmed in the following verse.
It is not sufficient to refer the saying to the insidious arts of the seducer, by which he saps the principles and inflames the passions of his victim.
The sin of unchastity is signified, which demands secrecy and affords no token of its commission. Two of the above parallels, says Cheyne, are given in a quatrain of a Vedic hymn to Varuna—.
The soaring eagle's flight he knows. Some of the Fathers and earlier commentators, and among moderns, Bishop Wordsworth, have not been content with the literal sense of this gnonic, but have found in it, as in the others, deep spiritual mysteries.
Christ is the great Eagle Revelation , who ascended beyond human ken; the serpent is the devil, who works his wily way in secret, and who tried to pass into the mind of Christ, who is the Rock; the ship is the Church, which preserves its course amid the waves of this troublesome world, though we cannot mark its strength or whither it is guided; and the fourth mystery is the incarnation of Jesus Christ our Lord, when "the virgin almah conceived and bare a son" Isaiah , when "a woman encompassed a man geber " Jeremiah We can see the greater or less appropriateness of such accommodation, but the proverb must have been received by contemporaries only in its literal sense, whatever were the inner mysteries which the Holy Spirit wished to communicate thereby.
This verse is a kind of gloss or illustration of the last thought of the preceding verse, and seems not to have formed an original part of the numerical proverb.
It might well be placed in a parenthesis. Many commentators consider it to be an interpolation. Such is the way of an adulterous woman.
What Agur had said of a man above, he now applies to the practised adulteress, whose sin cannot be traced. She eateth. This is a euphemism for the sin which she commits, "Stolen waters are sweet, and bread eaten in secret is pleasant" Proverbs ; comp.
And wipeth her mouth, as if to leave no trace of her illicit repast. And saith, I have done no wickedness. As she has sinned in secret, and there is no outward proof of her guilt, she boldly denies it.
Septuagint, "Such is the way of an adulterous woman, who, when she has committed the act, having washed herself, says she has done nothing amiss.
Then follows a proverb concerning four things which are intolerable, examples of incongruous associations or positions—two in the case of men, two in the case of women.
For three things the earth is disquieted ; better, under three things the earth doth tremble , as if oppressed by an overwhelming borden.
The form of expression does not allow us to think of an earthquake. Amos These four evils destroy the comfort of social life, uproot the bonds of society, and endanger the safety of a nation.
For a servant when he reigneth ; or, under a slave when he becometh king. This startling vicissitude was not uncommon in Eastern states; and even if the slave was not preferred to regal power, he was often advanced by unwise favouritism to high position, for which he was wholly unfitted, and which he used only to aggrandize himself at the expense and to the injury of others, This incongruity has been already noticed at Proverbs where see note.
And a fool when he is filled with meat. When such a one rises to high position, or has power over others, he becomes arrogant, selfish, unbearable comp.
Proverbs ; Proverbs ; Proverbs For an odious woman when she is married; or, under an unloved woman when she is married. The sentence does not refer to an unbeloved wife, a Leah, becoming the favourite, a Rachel; the expression, "when she is married," can hardly have this sense; but the gnome speaks of a woman who has passed much of her life without love, having nothing about her attractive either in looks, attainments, or manner, and is consequently soured and ill-tempered.
If such a one does at last win a husband, she uses her new position to vex those who formerly depreciated her, and to make them as miserable as she cam And a handmaid that is heir to her mistress.
The maidservant that obtains her mistress's property, either by supplanting her or by right of inheritance, is supposed to make a bad use of it, to become conceited, arrogant, and odious to all around her.
There be four things which are little upon the earth , in contrast with the intolerable pretensions of the last group. The Vulgate has minima ; but the original is not superlative, which would not be true of some of the creatures named.
The Septuagint and Vulgate translate in the comparatives. The ants are a people not strong. The ant is proposed as an example to the sluggard Proverbs , etc.
He calls the ants a people, am , because they live in a community, and have authorities which they obey, and their actions are regulated by certain definite laws.
So Joel Joel calls the locusts a nation, and Homer 'Iliad,' 2. In countries where ants hybernate the object of this commended foresight is mistaken; but the statement, as that in Proverbs , is in accordance with the popular belief of the day, and serves well to point the moral intended.
We know certainly that in Europe these insects fill their nests with heterogeneous articles—grain, seeds, husks, etc; not as stores to be consumed in the winter, but for warmth and comfort's sake.
Scripture is not intended to teach science; it speaks of such matters phenomenally, with no attempt at a precision which would not have been understood or appreciated by contemporaries.
But in the present case more careful observation has confirmed the correctness of the asset. In countries where, ants do not hybernate, they do make granaries for themselves in the summer, and use these supplies as food in the winter months see note on Proverbs The conies are but a feeble folk.
The term "coney" cuniculus is applied to the rabbit, but this is not the animal here intended; and indeed rabbits are not found in Palestine.
The word shaphan designates the Hyrax Syriacus , called by some the rock badger. The coney, says Dr. Geikie 'Holy Land and Bible,' 2.
It is of the size of the rabbit, but belongs to a very different order of animals, being placed by naturalists between the hippopotamus and rhinoceros.
Its soft fur is brownish-grey over the back, with long black hairs rising through this lighter coat, and is almost white on the stomach; the tail is very short.
The Jews, who were not scientific, deceived by the motion of its jaws in eating, which is exactly like that of ruminant animals, fancied it chewed the cud, though it did not divide the hoof, and so they put its flesh amidst that which was forbidden.
It lives in companies, and chooses a ready-made cleft in the rocks for its home, so that, though the conies are but a 'feeble folk,' their refuge in the rocks gives them a security beyond that of stronger creatures.
They are, moreover, 'exceeding wise,' so that it is very hard to capture one. Indeed, they are said, on high authority, to have sentries regularly placed on the look out while the rest are feeding; a squeak from the watchman sufficing to send the flock scudding to their holes like rabbits.
The coney is found in many parts of Palestine, from Lebanon to the Dead Sea. This fact is noticed in Psalms This notion of the animal as a kind of little pig is not more accurate than that of St.
Jerome, who renders the term by lepusculus. The locusts have no king Proverbs , yet they show discipline, guidance, and order.
They go forth all of them by bands; so that Joel Joel , Joel speaks of them as a well-ordered army, as it were men of war, marching every one on his ways, not entangling their ranks, walking every one in his path.
Septuagint, "The locusts are without a king, yet march at one command in good order. The spider taketh hold with her hands.
Semamith or shemamith is some sort of lizard, probably the gecko. The Authorized Version alludes either to its fanlike foot, which enables it to run up walls and to cling to ceilings, or to its power of exuding from its feet a certain poisonous humour by which it catches flies and other insects.
But the above translation, as well as that of the Septuagint and the Vulgate manibus nititur , is incorrect, The first line, in accordance with the method pursued in the three cases previously, ought to give some expression denoting weakness or littleness, whereas by the above rendering it is rather strength and activity that are signified.
The translation therefore should run, as in the Revised Version margin, "The lizard thou canst seize with thy hand," and yet it is in king's palaces.
Small as it is, and easy to catch and crush, it is agile and clever enough to make its way into the very palace of the king, and to dwell there.
Gregory takes the lizard as the type of the simple, earnest man, who often succeeds better than the clever. Whereas, then, 'the lizard climbeth with his hands,' he 'is in kings' palaces;' in that the plain man, by earnestness of right practice, reaches that point whereunto the man of ability never mounts" 'Moral.
The ancient expositors see in these verses a presentation of the Church of God, weak on its human side and despised by men, yet exceeding wise 1 Corinthians —like the ant, laying up treasure in heaven, providing for death and eternity; like the coney, making the Rock her refuge; like the locusts, moving forward a mighty army in battle array; like the lizard, active in movement, holding the truth tenaciously, and dwelling in the palace of the great King.
There be three things which go well rob ; are of stately and majestic carriage. Comely in going; "stately in going.
A lion which is strongest among beasts. The word here used for "lion," laish , occurs elsewhere only in Job and Isaiah Turneth not away for any; Septuagint, "turneth not away, nor feareth any beast.
In post-biblical Hebrew zarzir is found as the name of some pugnacious bird, and the Septuagint, Vulgate, and Syriac call it here the cock.
So also Aquila and Theodotion. But if the word is onomatopoetic, it would seem to apply with more propriety to one of the raven tribe; and then what is to be made of the allusion to the loins?
And how comes it that amid the quadrupeds in the gnome a bird should suddenly be introduced, as one stately in going?
It seems certain that some quadruped is here meant, but what? What animal has as characteristic tight-girded loins or slender or active loins?
There are, indeed, many that might be so designated, but none that, as far as we know, appropriated this unique appellation.
Hence various opinions are held by commentators concerning the identification. The zebra, say some, with its stripes, which may be thus denoted; the war horse, say others, comparing Job , Job , and considering the trappings with which, as we see in ancient sculptures, he was adorned; others, again, fix upon the leopard as the beast intended.
But that of the Authorized Version seems, on the whole, to be the most likely rendering, the slender, agile make of the greyhound having given cause for the appropriation of the term used in the text.
Delitzsch compares the German word windspiel , which designates the greyhound without the necessity of using the full term, wiadspielhund.
The only points which may be considered adverse to this view are these two, viz. Agur may be referring to what he has seen elsewhere, but what was well known to these for whom he wrote.
Gesenius suggests , "a warrior girt in the loins," which is adopted by Wordsworth, and gives a suitable idea. This would correspond with the king in the last line; but the interpretation is quite arbitrary, and supported by no ancient authority, resting on the fact that girding the loins is always spoken of human beings.
The cock strutting among his hens is, as we have hinted, the idea which approves itself to many ancient translators. We are not disposed to adept this identification, more especially as common poultry were unknown in Palestine till long after Solomon's time.
Certainly what we call cocks and hens, or barn door fowls, are never mentioned in the Old Testament. The latest editors decide for the war horse; but the conflicting claims cannot be reconciled, and the matter must be left undetermined.
An he goat also. This is a very natural comparison, as the stately manner in which the he goat tay-ish , "the butter" heads the flock has been always observed.
We see them everywhere on the mountains, in smaller or larger numbers; at times also along with sheep, as one flock, in which ease it is usually a he goat that is the special leader of the whole, walking before it as gravely as a sexton before the white flock of a church choir" Geikie, 'Holy Land,' A king, against whom there is no rising up; Vulgate, nec est rex qui resistat ei , which ought to mean "and a king whom nothing resists," but can scarcely be compelled to produce this meaning without violence.
To some it has seemed that a proper name was intended, and they have invented a King Alkum or Alkimos, whom they suppose to have been celebrated in or after Solomon's time.
Many modern commentators take the word to be an Arabic expression, consisting of al , the definite article, and kum , "people," and consider the meaning to be "a king with whom is the people," i.
This is certainly a stately sight, and may well stand parallel to the hero lion among beasts, and the bold he goat at the head of the flock.
Other Arabic expressions may probably be found elsewhere in this chapter; e. Job , Job , Job , aluka , etc. Agur's last proverb, exhorting to discreet demeanour.
If thou hast done foolishly in lifting up thyself Numbers If thou hast had the folly to be arrogant, proud, and overbearing in conduct.
Or if thou hast thought evil, lay thine hand upon thy mouth. The verb zamam , though possibly used in a bad sense, "to devise evil," is more suitably rendered "to meditate," "purpose;" so here it is the thought of lifting up one's self that is censured, the act and the thought being contrasted.
Hast thou acted arrogantly, or even only meditated doing so, restrain yourself, keep silence Job ; Job Jerome gives a different rendering, enforcing another lesson, "There is one who shows himself a fool after he is raised to high position; if he had had understanding, he would have laid his hand on his mouth.
But he will appear a fool when lifted up on high, because he will fail in his very loftiness through the coming of the true Judge.
But if he had understood this, he would have laid his hand on his mouth; that is, if he had foreseen his punishment, when he began to be proud, having been once fashioned aright, he would not have been raised up to the boastfulness of such great pride" Oxford transl.
Surely the churning of milk bringeth forth butter. The same word, mits , is used for "churning," "wringing," and "forcing;" it means "pressure" in all the cases, though with a different application.
At the present day milk is churned in the East by enclosing it in a leathern bottle, which is then suspended in the air and jerked to and fro till the butter is produced.
This process could scarcely be called "pressure," though, possibly, the squeezing of the udder is meant, as the Septuagint and Vulgate take it. But most probably the reference is to cheese, the term used, chemah , being applied indifferently to curdled milk and cheese.
To produce this substance, the curdled milk is put into little baskets of rush or palm leaves, tied closely, and then pressed under heavy stones.
What the proverb says is that, as the pressure applied to milk produces cheese, and as pressure applied to the nose brings blood, so the pressure of wrath bringeth forth strife; the irritation and provocation of anger occasion quarrels and contentions.
They say in Malabar, remarks Lane, "Anger is a stone cast into a wasp's nest. Some of the Fathers, commenting on the Vulgate rendering Qui fortiter premit ubera ad eliciendum lac, exprimit butyrum; et qui vehementer emungit, elicit sanguinem , apply the passage to the handling of the Word of God.
Thus St Gregory 'Moral. For we 'press the udder strongly' when we weigh with minute understanding the word of sacred revelation, by which way of pressing whilst we seek milk, we find butter, because, whilst we seek to be fed with but a little insight, we are anointed with the abundance of interior richness.
Which, nevertheless, we ought neither to do too much, nor at all times, lest, while milk is sought for from the udder, there should follow blood.
For very often, persons, whilst they sift the words of sacred revelation more than they ought, fall into a carnal apprehension.
For 'he draws forth blood who wringeth violently. The weary search for God. The man's saying, I have wearied myself about God, wearied myself about God—then did I withdraw!
Agur appears to have lived far away from the borders of the favoured land of Israel. If he was a Jew, he was one in exile, separated from the home of his people.
If he was an Ishmaelite, he was even outside the covenant of Israel, and in that case we have the striking picture of an Arab of antiquity anticipating Mahomet in breaking from the idolatry of his fathers.
Like Balsam, like Job, this resident in a heathen land looks up to the true God. Paul spoke to the Athenians of those who could "seek God, if haply they might feel after him, and find him" Acts ; and St.
Peter could acknowledge God's acceptance of all who look to him truly, no matter what race they might belong to Acts The natural search of the soul for God springs from certain great fundamental facts, viz.
God is the Father of all men. All men need God. All men are separated from God by sin, and therefore must feel naturally at a distance.
The world needs God. But the world has lost God. Hence the natural search for God. This is not the weariness of protracted thinking, the reaction from high mental tension.
It is worse than that; it is the weariness of a long and apparently fruitless search. Man cannot by searching find out God.
God does not appear to respond to the inquiry of the seeking mind. Even to the wisest of the Greeks he was "an Unknown God" Acts This testing serves chiefly to check those components which cannot be evaluated for durability on a test bench with sufficient reality.
Fifth and sixth half-years: Testing continues and procurement begins. During further track and bench tests the main accent now falls on a number of details all-important to the later success of a vehicle, Proper compromises must be found; in engine or gearbox mounts between noise and vibration comfort; on the intake side between fuel consumption, exhaust decontamination and throttle Although any development center has climatic test chambers to simulate extreme operational conditions, "real" cold and heat tests are still found in the standard test program of many builders, At Porsche extensive runs in the Alps and on the Arctic Circle have become a firm component of cold-weather testing as well as evaluating handling on snow or ice.
The counterpart to this is a large-scale program in the North African desert where they not only test for extreme heat but over unbelievably bad desert tracks which provide an ideal supplement to tests already performed on shaker surfaces at home.
Sand and dust which penetrate every crevice are a phenomenon hated by any test driver but welcomed in the test program. Meanwhile the most important decision since the project began has been made.
This was a green light for the purchase of tooling, operational means of production and components. All previous decisions were made within the development budget but now that framework is considerably exceeded.
The project reaches a dimension from which there is virtually no retreat. The firm's management must ask itself one last time: are we going in the right direction with this development, will the car find its place on the market, is there even a sufficiently large market niche for i t - in short, does our bill of particulars work out at the bottom line?
Planning concepts must now include production drawings and the leeway for alterations thus becomes smaller. Despite this fact, experience drawn from test operations will initiate constant modification - and any developing automobile must live with that fact.
A small pre-series must be put onto wheels as rapidly as possible to give production and quality control experts an opportunity to gather experience with the new vehicle under near-production conditions.
This or that is bound to go wrong - not everything which seems smooth as silk in the test department will necessarily work out in production.
Based on experience gained and evaluated from this pre-series, an actual dress rehearsal or pilot series is launched roughly six months before production begins.
Once again a number of facts may be determined from this pilot series and applied before production actually begins, and these can cause redispositions.
Thus the final few months before production starts become a race against time and problems of all kinds. This last major phase in development is always a high strain time for all concerned.
It demands the willingness and ability to compromise and to make rapid decisions with flexiblity. A proper crisis team is formed to solve problems which crop up daily.
Actual test work has concluded in the meantime and all requirements in the project book have been fulfilled. They have begun to fix the type, a further control procedure to some degree.
Apart from national construction approval there are approximately one dozen registration tests to be passed in other lands.
Expenditures for safety and environmental protection made during the development phase were considerable and they increase steadily. The catalogue of such regulations has grown from roughly sixty laws in to over in It is understandable that engineers and experimental.
The long-demanded and urgently-needed standardization of norms for safety and evironmental protection lies far in the future - what one country may demand today will be forbidden by another.
The confusion inherent in such widely varied laws absorbs energy which could be far more usefully applied. While production start up is being tested and type fixing is underway other segments of the firm have long-since become involved too.
Distribution prepares for the introduction of a new model to dealers and customers. Marketing concepts are developed, publicity strategy established and literature of all kinds printed.
Customer service men work at peak revs too - the entire inspection and repair system with its training of personnel, the writing of maintenance literature, technical outfitting of workshops and handling of warranties must be established, Spares of all kinds must be available and catalogued for day one.
And the very first customer will want his manual which- like all other literature- must be printed in various languages, Thus the circle from first sketch to production maturity is closing steadily.
Hundreds of workers were involved in the achievement, carrying heavy responsibilities and overcoming all difficulties. From this fact alone we can trace the most impressive characteristic of today's automobile development: its all-encompassing teamwork.
Automobiles are no longer built by individuals. They are never a one-man show any more. Whereas the first designs of ninety years ago were still the basic achievements of individual pioneers and while later cars, far into the thirties even, showed the clear hand of a designer ruling over his crew, the development of any automobile has now become a terribly complex and multilayered task which can only be solved by the perfect teamwork of a homogenous crew.
Porsche has often been described as the smallest among the auto factories and while this might be true within Germany, international comparisons prove the opposite.
Really small builders, particularly those of Italian or English persuasion, produce from 50 to cars annually. Against these, Porsche's current annual production of over 15, units with a work force of some seems gigantic.
Isn't it more a case of the giant among small auto firms? The tradition-rich firm in Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen is truly the smallest real car forge, the David among giants, because Porsche is separated by whole worlds from the true small builders who are almost all in deep difficulty, incidentally.
A more or less handwork-style of production without in-house body construction, inadequate customer service nets, modest distribution channels and a lack of development capacity with limited test facilities - none of these factors are a problem for the Swabian sport car builder.
Porsche of Zuffenhausen, Weissach and Ludwigsburg bears all the features of a large automobile factory. How did this undertaking break the bounds of a small, handwork operation after ?
Was it business foresight or good fortune? A glance at the firm's development path indicates that both those components must have been involved.
We can assume that the prehistory - marked by the name of Ferdinand Porsche - is well known to all. Thus we will only recapitulate briefly here how the one-time technical director of Austro Daimler, Daimler Benz and Steyr opened his own design office in Stuttgart during And how this office made headlines for the first time with the Auto Union Grand Prix car.
How it launched the Volkswagen project on its own initiative, one which later made Professor Ferdinand Porsche immortal. How this project was put through against every obstacle until a factory was created in Fallersieben later Wolfsburg under Porsche management, a plant destined to build the auto for everyman.
How this design office which settled into the Stuttgart industrial suburb of Zuffenhausen expanded to include an experimental department with its own workshops and how they developed cross-country vehicles during the war only to move to Gmund in Carinthia when the bombing began.
How postwar Volkswagen production began while Ferry Porsche and his people developed that first car in Gmund, based on the VW, which would carry the Porsche name.
And how, subsequently, the type went into limited production in a Zuffenhausen barracks, backed by the most restricted means.
How the first car was completed at Easter to find customer favor and be followed by ever-growing numbers until the constantly expanded production facilities burst all seams and made large investments necessary.
And how too, Porsche cars achieved success after success on all levels of motor sport. These are the stages which turned this small firm with the big name into an automobile factory; That ended the era of grand improvisation, although the firm didn't yet have its own body plant.
A large portion of their bodies came from Reutter right next door. This changed in when Porsche took over Reutter, absorbing body construction into its own plant.
A further milestone came with the production of the which began in It was a Porsche which owed nothing to any mass production car.
Such design ambition was no coincidence but cold reality, based on solid foundations. After all, the firm was once a design office exclusively, working on outside contracts and this realm was never neglected, even when their own car production figures increased rapidly.
The fact that this firm continued to consider itself a specialist in vehicle development had far-reaching consequences. The increasing impossibility of performing entire test programs on open roads, the steadily growing need for new test facilities of all kinds and a lack of space in old Plant I all indicated to management that an independent future could only be secured with huge investments in the development realm.
The result of such farsighted thinking was the development center at Weissach. Between and one of the most modern development centers in the world grew up there, stage by stage.
Vehicles of all types can now be conceived, designed, built and tested. Weissach is located some eighteen miles west of Stuttgart, a short half-hour by car from Zuffenhausen.
Somewhat less successful was the quasi-marriage with an unmatched partner which Porsche undertook towards the end of the sixties. At that time Zuffenhausen received extremely interesting development projects from Wolfsburg including the VW Porsche and EA , but found itself in turn removed, de facto, from the marketplace by VW since all distribution activities were taken over by a sales firm owned jointly by VW and Porsche.
The The former Kommanditgese. Ischaft known as the Dr. Ferry Porsche stepped down from active management of the firm at 62, to take over chairmanship of the board of overseers.
Although the firm remains entirely in the hands of the Porsche and Piech families, the younger Porsche and Piech generations stepped aside.
Ownership and management were separated, logically so in view of the dimensions this firm had achieved.
A board was established which consisted originally of the engineer Dr. Ernst Fuhrmann who later became Chairman and Heinz Branitzky, head of finance.
The second major event of was cancellation of project EA , developed by Porsche. Rudolf Leiding, new Chairman of the Board in Wolfsburg1 was forced to make this move by the less than successful model policies of his predecessors.
He had to put a beetle successor on the market quickly and in that situation he felt that the demanding mid-engine concept engine beneath the rear seat would be too risky.
The cancellation of project EA which was already in the midst of obtaining production tooling, meant a considerable loss of turnover for the Porsche development center which was partially operational by then.
Expected follow-up contracts for further development and model updating were dropped too of course.
Since VW obviously faced further grave problems by then, it became questionable whether a contract then hanging in the balance for development of a successor to the VW Porsche could be realized either.
The end of project EA had a further unpleasant effect on Porsche's own model development plans. The new board was barely seated when it had to make extremely difficult decisions.
Around when the popularity curve of the model was heading towards its first peak, Engineering and Styling began to deal with first designs for a new model generation.
Such studies were taken up rather hesitantly in the small and overcrowded confines of Plant I - with good reason. For one thing the Porsche race department was in full bloom at that time and real race fever had infected the entire development branch.
The race car types , , , and were created at unbelievably short intervals, race engines of six, eight, twelve and even sixteen cylinders were developed and troops of half-company strength rushed from race course to race course.
This racing trend, which went overboard at times, absorbed a great deal of development capacity and money, although it certainly had its beneficial side as well: Porsche still profits from lessons learned then in lightweight construction and aerodynamics.
In addition, a dynamic young engineering cadre grew up under the auspices of such hectic racing participation, survived many baptisms under fire and later proved itself on all kinds of "civilian" projects.
At that point the seemed sure to achieve a life span which would equal that of the before it. The concept of this vehicle had proved very favorable for further develop-.
Thus they wanted to avoid any unnecessary restriction of technical possibilities which might result from starting a new development too soon.
Furthermore, future exhaust and safety regulations were sprouting in those days, particularly in the United States, and their steady stiffening foreseen by the end of the seventies seemed to indicate it would be wise to avoid firm commitments.
This was particularly true for any follow-up generation which must aspire to another long model run. Extended model lives which allow better amortization of high investments are the be- and end-all for any small automobile manufacturer.
Finally there was another decisive reason for hesitation. Towards the end of the sixties it became more and more clear that one had arrived at a crossroads in questions of technical concept.
Would, or could, one remain with the rear engine and air cooling, characteristic features which the public considered untouchable Porsche dogma?
Or did the future belong to mid-engine sport cars which were already such a fixture of racing? Perhaps a classic design or even front-wheel drive might be viable alternatives?
The advantages and disadvantages of these various concepts were dispassionately weighed even in those days. Rear engines and air cooling were anything but holy and questioning them never taboo.
However they had to consider the question of whether customers would also Nevertheless, an end to both rear engines and air cooling became increasingly obvious.
Crash norms to come mitigated against the rear engine because its lack of a proper crush zone causes problems in rear-end crashes it is not the frontal crash which is problematic as SO many people believe.
There were also problems with the ever more stringent noise pollution laws since a rear engine car which is very quiet up front still has two noise sources in the rear: engine and exhaust exit.
There was the additional fact that this rear engine concept had a very bad reputation among opinion-shapers of the motoring press. It carried the stigmas of oversteer, poor directional stability and high side-wind sensitivity criticisms which may once have been justified in part although anybody sitting in a new would scarcely notice any trace of such stumbling blocks today..
The ultimate change to liquid cooling seems, in fact, to have been dictated more by a desire for generally better noise suppression and greater heater comfort.
This almost automatically led to a preference for the sport car with mid-mounted engine, a building style offering optimal handling qualities, ft was thoroughly race-proven and could be described as "typically Porsche" since it matched the concept of that first successful mid-engine race car, the Auto Union Grand Prix machine which Porsche had developed after all.
Then there was all that valuable experience gained with the VW Porsche which had just gone into production. However this very experience brought up the question of whether a normal mid-engine arrangement powerplant placed longitudinally ahead of the rear axle was realty the proper path.
Every design option indicated that the problems of emergency seating and small storage space reachable from the cockpit could only be insufficiently solved, if at all.
And this was precisely the sore point of a In the US where there is certainly an interesting market tor pure two-seaters this car sold relatively well.
In Europe, however, market success was obviously made 1. Thus price class, comfort requirements and minimum safes figures urgently demanded a satisfactory solution to the extra seat problem and this was not forthcoming since alternate suggestions such as a transverse engine brought their own disadvantages.
Prospects for a promising mid-engine layout only made progress when they fell back on project during In that small car which Porsche had developed for VW the engine was placed under the rear seat after all, thus solving the space problem.
However, before a new Porsche could be based on that principle planning would have to take an entirely new direction. There was not enough space under the rear seat for the large, eight-cylinder engine they preferred.
The had used a flat four. The result wouldn't be a "big" Porsche to expand the line upwards but another "small" vehicle like the Of course this turnaround could have its pleasant aspects too.
As in the days of the they could base their work on a mass production car, using its body platform. That would reduce necessary investment, lower the price and make a larger series viable.
Work now concentrated solely on a sport car derived from that and history seemed destined to repeat itself. Edited January 18, by Marmite!!
Posted April 14, Groups attending updated This topic is now closed to further replies. Followers 1.